Most dogs are quite predictable, if you just pay attention to them.
Here in downtown Richmond, VA, we're lucky to be near a river that remains relatively unspoiled. (Interactive Map of the James) Herons, eagles, all sorts of birds live nearby and fly over. Raccoons, possums, squirrels, voles, bunnies and chipmunks are common sights. Occasionally a fox or coyote, and every few years some deer, take a wrong turn through the neighborhood, and Fletcher never has any trouble figuring out which of those are predators, and what degree of response is appropriate. There's one exception for a specific squirrel, but that guy is asking for it.